for a liquid soap was issued to William Sheppard of New York City (No. 49,561).
The patent described his “discovery that by the addition of comparatively
small quantities of common soap to a large quantity of spirits of ammonia or hartshorn
is thickened to the consistency of molasses, and a liquid soap is obtained of
superior detergent qualities.” The proportions given were to dissolve one
pound of common soap in water or steam, and then add 100-lbs of ammonia such
that the liquid thickens to the consistency of molasses. The product was
expected to be useful for both domestic and manufacturing purposes. (Hartshorn
is an ancient name for an aqueous solution of ammonia).
|Decorative soaps, by Phanton at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons|
allows insoluble particles to become soluble in water, so they can then be
rinsed away. For example: oil/fat is insoluble in water, but when a couple of
drops of dish soap are added to the mixture, the oil/fat dissolves in the
water. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny
spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic (water-attracting)
groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic (fat-attracting) pocket, which
shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything that
is soluble will be washed away with the water.
determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium
hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide,
are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted
from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be
hard—these are used exclusively in greases.
acids. Traditionally they have been made from triglycerides (oils and fats).
Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and
glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride
from animals. Its saponified product is called sodium tallowate. Typical
vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, and
laurel oil. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content and hence,
results in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps.
Soap made from pure olive oil is sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille
soap, and is reputed for being extra mild. The term “Castile” is also
sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2g21bRe
|Full moon as seen from Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, by Gregory H. Revera (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://ift.tt/HKkdTz) or GFDL (http://ift.tt/KbUOlc)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2hZBIs3
|A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. By AzaToth (self made based on PDB entry) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2fmyLRM
|Joseph Priestley, by Charles Turner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2ufYE7h
|Full Moon photograph taken 10-22-2010 from Madison, Alabama, USA. By Gregory H. Revera (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://ift.tt/HKkdTz) or GFDL (http://ift.tt/KbUOlc)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2eNgDjJ
|Mars in natural colour in 2007. By ESA – European Space Agency & Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research for OSIRIS Team ESA/MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/RSSD/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA [CC BY-SA 3.0-igo (http://ift.tt/1wBCVB0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2eKPv4T
|A small cup of coffee. By Julius Schorzman (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://ift.tt/KcQbXG)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2uIaP1C
|Total Solar Eclipse. I, Luc Viatour [GFDL (http://ift.tt/KbUOlc), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://ift.tt/gc84jZ) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://ift.tt/Xoxvyb)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2uuwjOG
|CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere if half of global-warming emissions are not absorbed (NASA simulation). By NASA/GSFC [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons|
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2u4AQqA
|Foam rubber mattress [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons|
- Material preparation – Liquid and solid material generally arrive on location via rail or truck, once unloaded liquid materials are stored in heated tanks. When producing slabstock typically two or more polymers streams are used.
- Mixing – Open pouring, better known as continuous dispensing is used primarily in the formation of rigid, low density foams. Specific amounts of chemicals are mixed into a mixing head, much like an industrial blender. The foam is poured onto a conveyor belt, where it then cures for cutting.
- Curing and Cutting – After curing on the conveyor belt the foam is then forced through a horizontal band saw. This band saw cuts the pieces in a set size for the application. General contracting uses 4’x12’x2’’.
- Further processing – Once cut and cured the slabstock can either be sold or a lamination process can be applied. This process turns the slabstock into a rigid foam board known as boardstock. Boardstock is used for metal roof insulation, oven insulation, and many other durable goods.
via Blogger http://ift.tt/2sySbZn