Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte. Since volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant or titrator is prepared as a standard solution. A known concentration and volume of titrant reacts with a solution of analyte or titrand to determine concentration.

Titrator set up

The word “titration” comes from the Latin word titulus, meaning inscription or title. The French word titre, also from this origin, means rank.

There are several reasons why titration is used in laboratories worldwide:

  1. Titration is an established analytical technique
  2. It is fast
  3. It is a very accurate and precise technique
  4. A high degree of automation can be implemented
  5. Titration offers a good price/performance ratio compared to more sophisticated techniques
  6. It can be used by low-skilled and low-trained operators
  7. No need for highly specialised chemical knowledge
Karl Fischer titration: A potentiometric method to analyse trace amounts of water in a substance. A sample is dissolved in methanol, and titrated with Karl Fischer reagent. The reagent contains iodine, which reacts proportionally with water. Thus, the water content can be determined by monitoring the potential of excess iodine.

Automated titrators follow a defined sequence of operations. This sequence is basically the same for all different models and brands. This sequence is performed and repeated several times until the endpoint or the equivalence point of the titration reaction is reached (titration cycle).

More complex applications require more steps, for example dispensing of an additional reagent for back titration, dilution of the sample, adjustment of the initial pH value, etc. These steps and the corresponding parameters are defined in the titration methods used by the titrator.

P&R Labpak offer a full range of titration equipment and associated consumables and chemicals such as Hydranal® reagents.

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Posted on April 25, 2014, in Useful Information. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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